Nature News

Wind migration of mosquitoes from malaria within the Sahel

1.

WHO. World Malaria Report 2017. (WHO, 2018).

2

Gething, P.W. et al. Mapping Plasmodium falciparum mortality in Africa between 1990 and 2015. N. Engl. J. Med. 375, 2435-2445 (2016).

Three

Dao, A. et al. Signatures of estivation and migration in malaria mosquito populations within the Sahel. Nature 516, 387-390 (2014).

four

Fontenille, D. et al. Sturdy annual and seasonal differences in Anopheles malaria transmission and vector species composition in Dielmo, a holoendemic zone in Senegal. A m. J. An excessive amount of. Med. Hyg. 56, 247-253 (1997).

5

Fontenille, D. et al. 4-year entomological examine on seasonal malaria transmission in Senegal and on Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis bionomy. Trans. R. Soc. An excessive amount of. Med. Hyg. 91, 647-652 (1997).

6

Lehmann, T. et al. Estivation of the African mosquito of malaria, Anopheles gambiae within the Sahel. A m. J. An excessive amount of. Med. Hyg. 83, 601-606 (2010).

seven.

Simard F., T. Lehmann, J. Lemasson, M. Diatta and D. Fontenille. Persistence of Anopheles arabiensis through the robust dry season situations in Senegal: an oblique method utilizing microsatellite loci. Insect Mol. Biol. 9, 467-479 (2000).

eight

Omer, S.M. and Cloudsley-Thompson, J.L. Dry season biology of Anopheles gambiae Giles in Sudan. Nature 217, 879-880 (1968).

9

Mamai, W. et al. Monitoring the persistence of Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations in a confined semi-field system in southwestern Burkina Faso, West Africa. J. Med. Entomol. 53, 130-138 (2016).

ten.

Yaro, A.S. et al. Reproductive despair of Anopheles gambiae within the Sahel through the dry season. J. Insect Physiol. 58, 1050-1059 (2012).

11

Chapman, J.W., Reynolds, D.R., and Wilson, Ok. Seasonal Lengthy-range Migration in Bugs: Mechanisms, Evolutionary Elements, and Ecological Penalties. Faculty. Lett. 18, 287-302 (2015).

12

Service, dispersion of Mr. W. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) – Briefly. J. Med. Entomol. 34, 579-588 (1997).

13

Service, M. W. Mosquito Ecology Subject Strategies (Elsevier Utilized Science, 1993).

14

Costantini, C. et al. Density, survival and dispersal of mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae advanced in a savanna village of Sudan in West Africa. Med. Veterinary. Entomol. 10, 203-219 (1996).

15

Toure, Y. T. et al. Tag-release-recapture experiments with Anopheles gambiae s.l. within the village of Banambani, Mali, to find out the dimensions and construction of the inhabitants. Med. Veterinary. Entomol. 12, 74-83 (1998).

16

Garrett-Jones, C. The opportunity of lively long-distance migrations of Anopheles pharoensis Theobald. Taurus. World Well being Group. 27, 299-302 (1962).

17

Sellers, R. F. Climate, host and vector – their interplay within the unfold of animal viral illnesses transmitted by bugs. J. Hyg. (Lond.) 85, 65-102 (1980).

18

Glick, P. A. The distribution of bugs, spiders and mites within the air. Technical Bulletin No. 673 (United States Division of Agriculture, 1939).

19

Reynolds, D.R. et al. Atmospheric transport of mosquitoes in northeastern India. Med. Veterinary. Entomol. 10, 181-186 (1996).

20

Kyalo, D. et al. Geocoded stock of anopheles from the Afrotropical area south of the Sahara: 1898-2016. Welcome Open Res. 2, 57 (2017).

21

Beier, J.C. et al. Characterization of malaria transmission by Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya for malaria vaccine trials. J. Med. Entomol. 27, 570-577 (1990).

22

Antonio-Nkondjio, C. et al. Complexity of the vector system of malaria in Cameroon: contribution of the secondary vectors to the transmission of malaria. J. Med. Entomol. 43, 1215-1221 (2006).

23

Toure, Y. T. et al. Lengthy-term transmission of malaria by the Anopheles gambiae advanced in a savannah space in northern Sudan, Mali. Med. Veterinary. Entomol. 10, 197-199 (1996).

24

Stein, A.F. et al. NOAA HYSPLIT Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Modeling System. Taurus. A m. Meteorol. Soc. 96, 2059-2077 (2015).

25

Verdonschot, P. F. M. and Besse-Lototskaya, A. A. Mosquito flight distance (Culicidae): a metadata evaluation to facilitate the administration of safety zones round re-humidified and newly constructed wetlands. Limnologica 45, 69-79 (2014).

26

Hay, S.I., Rogers, D.J., Toomer, J.F. & Snow, R.W. Annual charges of Plasmodium falciparum (EIR) entomological inoculation in Africa: evaluate of the literature, entry to the Web and evaluate. Trans. R. Soc. An excessive amount of. Med. Hyg. 94, 113-127 (2000).

27

Nicholson, S. E. The West African Sahel: Evaluate of Latest Research on Rainfall and Interannual Variability. ISRN Meteorol. 2013, 453521 (2013).

28

Wilson, Ok. in Insect Migration: Useful resource Monitoring By means of House and Time (eds Drake, VA & Gatehouse, A.G.) 243-264 (Cambridge Univ Press, 1995).

29

Pedgley, D.E., Reynolds, D.R., and Tatchell, G.M. in Insect Migration: Useful resource Monitoring in House and Time (eds Drake, V.A. and Gatehouse, A.G.) Three-30 (Cambridge Univ Press, 1995).

30

Frean, J., Brooke, B., Thomas, J. and Blumberg, L. Odyssean, Malaria Epidemics in Gauteng Province, South Africa, 2007-2013. S. Afr. Med. J. 104, 335-338 (2014).

31.

Lehmann, T. et al. Hint the origin of Anopheles coluzzii in the beginning of the wet season within the Sahel. Evol. Appl. 10, 704-717 (2017).

32

Lehmann, T. et al. Seasonal variation of the spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae in a Sahelian village: proof of aestivation. J. Med. Entomol. 51, 27-38 (2014).

33

Huestis, D.L. et al. Seasonal variation in metabolic price, flight exercise, and physique measurement of Anopheles gambiae within the Sahel. J. Exp. Biol. 215, 2013-2021 (2012).

34

Fritz, G.N., Fritz, A.H. and Vander Meer, R. Ok. Sampling of excessive altitude crossing flights and laminates of imported pink ants. J. Med. Entomol. 48, 508-512 (2011).

35

Fanello, C., Santolamazza, F. & della Torre, A. Simultaneous identification of species and molecular types of the Anopheles gambiae advanced by PCR-RFLP. Med. Veterinary. Entomol. 16, 461-464 (2002).

36

Scott, J.A., Brogdon, W. G. & Collins, F.H. Identification of distinctive samples of the Anopheles gambiae advanced by polymerase chain response. A m. J. An excessive amount of. Med. Hyg. 49, 520-529 (1993).

37

Santolamazza, F. et al. Insertion polymorphisms of SINE200 retrotransposons inside speciation islands of molecular types of Anopheles gambiae. Malar. J. 7, 163 (2008).

38

Simon, C. et al. Evolution, weighting and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and compilation of conserved polymerase chain response primers. Ann. Entomol. Soc. A m. 87, 651-701 (1994).

39

Folmer, O., Black, M., W. Hoeh, R. Lutz and R. Vrijenhoek, DNA primers for the amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from varied metazoan invertebrates. Mol. Mar Biol. Biotechnol. Three, 294-299 (1994).

40

Linton, Y.-M. et al. Mosquitoes of the Amazonian Ecuador is: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes. Similar. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 108, 100-109 (2013).

41

Bass, C. et al. Detection of Plasmodium by PCR in Anopheles mosquitoes: comparability of a brand new excessive throughput check with present strategies. Malar. J. 7, 177 (2008).

42

Demas, A. et al. Utilized Genomics: Information mining reveals extra species-specific malaria diagnostic targets than 18S rRNA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 49, 2411-2418 (2011).

43

Steenkeste, N. et al. In direction of high-throughput molecular detection of Plasmodium: new approaches and molecular markers. Malar. J. eight, 86 (2009).

44

Kent, R.J. & Norris, D. E. Identification of mammalian blood meals in mosquitoes by a multiplexed polymerase chain response concentrating on cytochrome b. A m. J. An excessive amount of. Med. Hyg. 73, 336-342 (2005).

45

SAS. SAS for Home windows model 9.Three https://www.sas.com/ (2011).

46

Hu, G. et al. Seasonal mass bioflows of migratory bugs excessive thieves. Science 354, 1584-1587 (2016).

47

Drake, V. A. & Reynolds, D. R. Radar Entomology: statement of flight and bug migration (CABI Worldwide, 2012).

48.

Reynolds, D., Chapman, J. & Stewart, A. Windborne: Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera) migration over Britain. EUR. J. Entomol. 114, 554-564 (2017).

49

Taylor, L. R. Insect migration, flight frequency and boundary layer. J. Anim. Faculty. 43, 225-238 (1974).

50

Chapman, J.W., Drake, V.A. and Reynolds, D.R. Latest overviews of radar research on insect flight. Annu. Rev Entomol. 56, 337-356 (2011).

51.

Kaufmann, C. and Briegel, H. Efficiency in flight of Malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles atroparvus. J. Vector Ecol. 29, 140-153 (2004).

52.

Snow, W. F. Subject estimates of the flight pace of some mosquitoes in West Africa. Ann. An excessive amount of. Med. Parasitol. 74, 239-242 (1980).

53

Eagles, D., Walker, P., Zalucki, M. P. & Durr, P. A. Modeling spatio-temporal patterns of long-distance Culicoides dispersal in northern Australia. Prev. Veterinary. Med. 110, 312-322 (2013).

54

Stefanescu, C., Alarcón, M. & Ávila, A. The migration of the painted butterfly, Vanessa cardui, to the north-east of Spain is favored by African wind currents. J. Anim. Faculty. 76, 888-898 (2007).

55

Klausner, Z., Fattal, E. & Klement, E. Utilizing the everyday wind trajectories of synoptic programs for the evaluation of long-range atmospheric dispersion of the nodular pores and skin illness virus. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 64, 398-410 (2017).

56.

Gelaro, R. et al. The Retrospective Evaluation of the Fashionable Period for Analysis and Purposes, Model 2 (MERRA-2). J. Clim. 30, 5419-5454 (2017).

57

Pedgley, D. E. Pests and Windborne Ailments: Meteorology of Airborne Organizations (Ellis Horwood, 1982).

58.

Gillies, M. T. & Wilkes, T. J. Subject experiments with a wind tunnel on the flight pace of some mosquitoes of West Africa (Diptera: Culicidae). Taurus. Entomol. Res. 71, 65 (1981).

59

Kahle, D. & Wickham, H. ggmap: spatial visualization with ggplot2. R J. 5, 144-161 (2013).

60.

Hijmans, R. J. Geosphere: spherical trigonometry. Package deal R model 1.5-10 https://cran.r-project.org/package deal=geosphere (2017).

61.

Slowikowski, Ok. ggrepel: Mechanically places textual content labels that don’t overlap with "ggplot2". Package deal model R zero.eight.1 https://cran.r-project.org/package deal=ggrepel (2018).

62

Santos Baquero, O. ggsn: North symbols and scale bars for maps created with "ggplot2" or "ggmap". Package deal model R zero.5.2 https://cran.r-project.org/package deal=ggsn (2019).

63.

Arnold, J. B. ggthemes: extra themes, scales and geographical areas for 'ggplot2'. R four.2.zero package deal model https://cran.r-project.org/package deal=ggthemes (2019).

64.

Grolemund, G. & Wickham, H. Simplified dates and instances with lubricant. J. Stat. Softw. 40, 1-25 (2011).

65.

R Studio group. RStudio: Built-in Growth Surroundings for Model Three.6.zero of the R. R package deal https://www.rstudio.com/ (2015).

66.

R Core Workforce. R: a language and an atmosphere for statistical computing. https://www.r-project.org/ (2016).

67.

Fisher, N. I. Statistical Evaluation of Round Information (Cambridge Univ Press, 1993).

68.

Wickham, H. et al. ggplot2: Create elegant information visualizations utilizing graph grammar. Package deal R model Three.2.1 https://cran.r-project.org/internet/packages/ggplot2/index.html (2019).