Space News

NASA's 17 Apollo Moon Missions in Photos


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(Picture credit score: NASA)

The Apollo program has positioned people on the moon for the primary time.

The trouble started with President John F. Kennedy's speech of Could 25, 1961, which introduced the purpose of sending astronauts to the moon.

The rocket expertise required for this feat was examined between 1961 and 1966. In 1966, the non-Apollo-Saturn AS-201, AS-203 and AS-202 flights (so as of launch) confirmed that the Saturn IB launcher was prepared to hold astronauts into house.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

Apollo 1 – Disaster on the pavement

From left to proper, Apollo 1 astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee, in entrance of their Saturn 1 launch car at Launch Complicated 34, on the Kennedy Area Heart in Florida.

Astronauts have been coaching for the AS-204, the primary crewed check of the Apollo Command / Service Module. Nevertheless, on January 27, 1967, a fireplace on the launch pad price the lives of the three astronauts throughout a preflight check.

NASA retroactively nominated the unmanned Apollo 1 mission because the company redesigned the Apollo Command Module and resumed unmanned check flights.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

First check flights with out preparation

Earlier than the Apollo 1 catastrophe, three unannounced check flights of Apollo-Saturn rockets had taken place. The AS-201 (see right here), AS-203 and AS-202 missions came about in 1966 to check the Saturn 1B launcher.

These missions set the stage for the AS-204, which was to be the primary crewed mission, however which ended with a fireplace that killed three astronauts throughout coaching. This mission was later renamed Apollo 1. Apollo four then continued unprepared check flights as NASA redesigned the management module.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

Apollo four – "Full" check

The large Saturn V rocket for the Apollo four mission at Kennedy Area Heart launch advanced 39A is situated on the daybreak of November eight, 1967, throughout the pre-launch alert.

The unarmed Apollo four (AS-501) mission was the primary "full" check of the Saturn V three-stage rocket, which meant that each one phases have been working.

The seemingly complicated designation of Apollo four stems from the primary three unthreaded launches, AS-201, AS-203 and AS-202.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

Apollo 5 – The lunar module checks

The rocket for Apollo 5 (AS-204), Saturn IB's fourth launcher, sits on the launch pad earlier than takeoff of the Apollo 5 unarmed mission from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on January 22, 1968.

This mission has efficiently examined the lunar module in an area surroundings. This was the primary flight of the lunar module to move astronauts to the moon.

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(Picture credit score: NASA / JPL-Caltech / College of Toledo)

Apollo 6 – The unmanned closing check

The Apollo 6 mission offered the newest check of the Saturn V launcher and the Apollo spacecraft to be used in crewed Apollo missions.

It was launched on April four, 1968, however was overshadowed by the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. the identical day.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

Apollo 7 – First crewed Apollo mission

Walter Schirra, commander of Apollo 7, sports activities 9 days of beard in house whereas looking the rendezvous window throughout the orbital Earth mission.

Apollo 7 was additionally composed of Donn Eisele and Walter Cunningham.

The mission, launched October 11, 1968, consisted of an engineering flight to check the efficiency of spacecraft and mission help services throughout a manned mission.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

Apollo eight – lunar orbit and return

This picture of Earth seen from close to the moon was taken by the Apollo eight astronauts in December 1968.

Apollo eight was launched at Cape Kennedy on December 21, 1968, carrying astronauts Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and Invoice Anders. The three astronauts have earned the excellence of seeing the far aspect of the moon for the primary time in human historical past.

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(Picture credit score: NASA / James McDivitt)

Apollo 9 – First check of the lunar module with crew

Astronaut Russell Schweickart is on the bridge of the module when it was launched in house on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 mission. This photograph was taken from contained in the lunar module "Spider" by Mission Commander James McDivitt.

Apollo 9 was the primary crewed flight of the command / service module with the lunar module. The three-person crew of the mission, which additionally included command module pilot Dave Scott, examined a number of key features for touchdown on the moon.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

Apollo 10 – lunar orbit and return

The Apollo 10 Management and Service Modules (CSM) are photographed from the Lunar Module (LM) after the CSM / LM lunar orbit separation.

Apollo 10 was launched at Cape Kennedy on Could 18, 1969 by astronauts Thomas Stafford, John Younger and Eugene Cernan. The mission served as a "costume rehearsal" for the true touchdown of the moon.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

Apollo 11 – first males on the moon

Buzz Aldrin stands close to the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" leg throughout the Apollo 11 Extravehicular Exercise (EVA).

Apollo 11 was launched from Cape Kennedy on July 16, 1969, carrying Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and management module pilot Michael Collins. Armstrong and Aldrin ceaselessly modified the course of historical past by strolling on the face of the moon.

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(Picture credit score: NASA / MSFC)

Apollo 12 – stormy ocean

A tv digital camera and different elements of the unmanned robotic Land Surveyor three have been introduced again from the moon for scientific assessment. Right here, Pete Conrad, the moon walker on Apollo 12, examines the geometer's tv digital camera.

Apollo 12 was launched at Cape Kennedy on November 14, 1969 with crew Charles Conrad, Jr., Alan L. Bean and Richard F. Gordon Jr.

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Apollo 13 – "Houston, we had an issue."

On April 11, 1970, Apollo 13 took off for the moon with Commander Jim Lovell, management module pilot Jack Swigert and lunar module pilot Fred Haise on board. Two days later, because the spacecraft was heading in direction of the moon, an oxygen tank exploded, cleansing up the lunar touchdown and endangering the crew.

Working with Mission Management in Houston, the crew used its lunar module as a "lifeboat" and even mounted an adapter in order that an "air cleaner" management module would function within the lunar module, thus stopping a harmful accumulation of carbon dioxide. The mission ended unhindered when the crew landed on April 17, 1970.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

Apollo 14 – Fra Mauro

On February 5, 1971, the lunar module Apollo 14 landed on the heights of the Maur Frao, with Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell on board. Stuart Roosa piloted the management module. Takeoff came about 33 hours later.

Alan Shepard hit two golf balls on the moon on the finish of the final EVA.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

Apollo 15 – Hadley Rille

Apollo 15 launched on July 26, 1971. On this photograph, Jim Irwin, pilot of the lunar module of Apollo 15, hundreds the primary lunar rover in anticipation of the primary lunar spacewalk on Hadley's touchdown web site. Apennine. The lunar module "Falcon" is on the left of this picture. The undeployed laser telemetry retro reflector is predicated on Falcon's modular tools storage bundle. David R. Scott and Alfred M. Worden made up the remainder of the crew.

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(Picture credit score: NASA)

Apollo 16 – Descartes

Throughout the Apollo 16 mission, Charles M. Duke, Jr. collects rock samples from the Descartes touchdown web site on the Moon.

Apollo 16 took off on April 16, 1972 from the Kennedy Area Heart in Florida. John W. Younger and Thomas Ok. Mattingly II additionally participated within the mission.

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(Picture credit score: Harrison H. Schmitt / NASA)

Apollo 17 – The touchdown of the ultimate moon

Apollo 17 mission commander, Eugene A. Cernan, conducts a quick lunar car verify in the beginning of the primary Apollo 17 spacewalk exercise on the Taurus-Littrow touchdown web site in 1972. Harrison H Schmitt and Ronald E. Evans full the crew, the final people to set foot on the moon (to at the present time).

After Apollo 17, three different missions, 18, 19 and 20, have been deliberate, however have been canceled on account of price range constraints. Apollo-Saturn expertise was used for 4 Skylab missions and the Apollo-Soyuz check challenge in 1975 earlier than the top of this system by NASA.

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