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Aboriginal educators struggle for a selected historical past of California

This text was initially revealed on Excessive Nation Information (hcn.org) on ​​April 19, 2019.

On the age of eight, Gregg Castro traveled the Santa Lucia Mountains for the primary time, within the fall, along with his father, to hunt deer and wild pig, when oaks and bushes from Manzanita are gilded and the well-known blue sky of California turns grey.

Sitting alongside California's central shoreline, the Santa Lucias are dotted with pines and redwoods and are house to rattlesnakes, large cats and, in response to some, the ghost of a headless girl – a settler who died crossing a stream within the 19th century. The best peak of the chain, Junipero Serra, is a couple of kilometer above sea degree. There are caves and caves all through the area, a lot of that are utilized by the Castro Salinans ancestors when touring to and from the Pacific Ocean. The mission additionally homes the San Antonio de Padua mission, considered one of 21 Catholic outposts constructed by Spain within the late 1700s to determine a colonial foot and convert indigenous peoples to Christianity.

In winter, on the way in which to Jolon, California, when the rains arrived and it was chilly, Castro remembers that his father had heated the warmth of his previous Chevrolet truck and rolled out the window. The odor of oaks, pebbles and willow floated within the truck – the odor "Jolon", as known as Castro, the odor of the home.

The street was lengthy between the mountains and town of San Jose, the place the household lived on the time. Castro's father typically stopped and camped close to Mission San Antonio de Padua. This allowed them to hunt earlier and allowed them to linger of their conventional homeland, the place his father felt snug. After dinner, because the campfire was dying and the sundown approached, Castro wrapped himself in his favourite inexperienced coat to flee the nocturnal chilly of the valley and discover the mission gardens and tiled walkways.

San Antonio de Padua was in-built 1771, however throughout the Second World Warfare, the mission was in ruins: tiles fell from the roof and looters stole work and different valuables from inside. It was not till the late 1940s that the Hearst Basis made a donation to renovate this ruined constructing. A volunteer-run present store was opened to hawk rosaries and self-published books concerning the mission.

Within the 1950s, as soon as the renovation work was accomplished, guests may go to the chapel and see statues of saints and pictures of the Virgin of Guadalupe on the stucco partitions. They might see the easy wood benches that also crammed the church and, on the surface, the stones that had been as soon as used to grind the grain, then wander by way of the Spanish-style backyard with its massive grey fountain. , its rose bushes and lemon bushes shining underneath the Californian solar. . Tour guides usually prevented the darker particulars of its historical past, such because the four,000 members of the Salinan tribe buried in a mass grave about 500 ft from the church – their loss of life and their elimination. last reward for his or her work within the development of the mission. On the age of 9, Castro first found the burial website and its marker: a crude signal, higher tailored to a spaghetti western, which had simply learn "Indian Graves".

"My dad and mom would say that they bought sick and died," Castro remembers. "Euphemisms. These methods of blunting the terrifying fact: that they died by the 1000’s by constructing these missions.

Tour guides usually prevented the darker particulars of its historical past, such because the four,000 members of the Salinan tribe buried in a mass grave about 500 ft from the church – their loss of life and their elimination. last reward for his or her work within the development of the mission.

Lower than 70 miles from right here, 1000’s of vacationers benefit from the iconic views of Massive Sur. However Padua's San Antonio mission nonetheless casts a veil over the Santa Lucia mountains. Because of its development, 1000’s of members of the Salinan tribe and different indigenous peoples died of starvation, violence and slavery. The sacred websites had been destroyed. Conventional meals have been forcibly changed by European staple meals, akin to livestock. When the Mexican authorities took management of the world, indigenous peoples had been slaughtered to acquire Spanish land grants promised to settlers. Then the Individuals got here.

As Castro grew up, this story escaped her, simply as she escaped me. In school, there was no point out of the Chumash, Esselen, Ohlone, Salinan or different tribes that when flourished on the very grounds the place we performed kickball. There have been no programs on locations necessary to us, such because the Cave Wagon or the Morro Rock, which my grandmother and I visited once I was a child. We discovered in school that there have been no extra Indians left. No Chumash close to the city of Shell Seashore or Salinan close to the city of Templeton the place I spent my years of elementary faculty; we had been extinct. At house, our grandparents had been tight-lipped and infrequently bitter in our household's historical past.

Castro remembers that his father had instructed him, "Know who you’re and be happy with it, however don’t inform anybody." It was the worry that prevailed – the worry transmitted by dad and mom and grandparents who reminded the way it was authorized to kill Indians in California.

Since he discovered the graveyard at San Antonio Mission in Padua, Castro carries a picture in his head, that of Indian our bodies piled up like firewood. Mission visits not often point out this story, however the truth that California public colleges don’t train it’s much more troubling, regardless of the 2017 legislation that requires them to take action.

Meeting Invoice No. 738, Mannequin Program for Native Individuals, was sponsored by Democrat Monique Limón, a former member of the Santa Barbara and Ventura County College Board, and handed with robust bipartisan assist. . "This invoice would oblige the fee to develop and the council of state to undertake, modify or revise a normal program of Native American research," says the textual content.

Nevertheless, this requirement doesn’t include funding for coaching, improvement, and even textbooks, leaving lecturers with a troublesome selection: to adjust to the legislation because it sees match, or to proceed to attenuate or ignore the atrocities dedicated by the settlers towards the native peoples the settlers within the founding of what’s at present California.

In different phrases, the Golden State understands that it has an issue with what it teaches its kids. It doesn’t do a lot about it.

At present, Castro, a communications technician, activist and author, has teamed up with different educators to inform them that they’ve had sufficient.

Max Rafferty was strict, clear and had a face that expressed a strict and irreproachable character. Within the late 1950s and early 1960s, he was superintendent of a small faculty district in southern California, which was not the case for all. However in 1961, every part modified when he delivered his fiery speech, "The loss of life of the patriot".

A conservative sermon delivered at La Cañada College within the northeastern suburb of Los Angeles, "The Loss of life of the Patriot" gained quite a few awards and was reprinted in Readers Digest, which was not usually thought-about an influential journal. however learn by Rafferty's coronary heart. public – conservative, white and bourgeois.

A product of the Californian coverage that introduced Ronald Reagan to energy in 1967, Rafferty's speech criticized educators for failing to show schoolchildren the "conventional values," lamenting that younger individuals are being misplaced to "professors." morally unfit "and that" younger individuals grew as much as develop into stuffed boots, lower within the cranium, with braids of leather-based, leather-based tunics, whose favourite sport delighted the little women and crushed the victims of polio to loss of life. After his efficiency on the faculty of La Cañada, Rafferty's picture as conservative fireball was cemented.

In 1962, Rafferty ran for the place of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Within the first yr, he was elected reasonably than titular with 200,000 votes. It was the proper alternative for Rafferty to offer the California faculty system its conservative values.

"It's ugly to show kids to reverence the nice Individuals of the previous, to cherish the traditions of our nation, to hate communism and its creatures, so I say: let's be ugly."

California, like a lot of the nation, was going by way of a turbulent interval. Within the 1960s, college campuses turned the main target of protests towards the Vietnam Warfare, even because the civil rights motion threatened to overthrow established establishments – one thing that Rafferty vehemently disapproved of. Talking on tv and in a weekly column, he opposed anti-war protesters and condemned what he noticed as violence on campus. He opposed lecturers' strikes within the 1970s, intercourse schooling and laws to supply housing or truthful buses to raised combine colleges. In his 2010 essay entitled "Standing Up Towards Sugar Cubes", Zevi Gutfreund, a professor within the state of Louisiana, says that underneath the Rafferty administration, colleges had been inspired to revive "conventional values" at school by creating patriots imbued with the values ​​of nice American leaders akin to Andrew Jackson. and George Washington. "Training over the previous three many years has intentionally debunked the hero," Rafferty stated. "It's ugly to show kids to reverence the nice Individuals of the previous, to cherish the traditions of our nation, to hate communism and its creatures, so I say: let's be ugly."

To create a novel instructional expertise within the Golden State, Rafferty selected to reward the virtues of early settlers within the space. Essentially the most outstanding "chief" was Father Junipero Serra, a Franciscan from Majorca, Spain, typically described because the "founding father of California".

Serra arrived in what’s now Mexico in 1749. After a couple of years of missionary work and a keep on the Spanish Inquisition, he headed north to what was then known as " "Alta California" to unfold the Catholic religion. A lot of the tales and scholarly works on Serra describe him as practising a really medieval religion in comparison with his Franciscan contemporaries; he prevented any trendy conveniences like a mattress and refused to put on footwear, even when he was touring on the rugged terrain of Mexico or California deserts, even injured.

To purify his thoughts, he punished himself, typically practising self-flogging with a series of sharp iron hyperlinks when "sinful ideas" entered his thoughts. His time with the Inquisition deepened his intolerance of "Indian superstitions", fueling a propensity for violence; he used beatings, lashes and torture towards Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women and men who refused to work or to just accept Christian teachings.

At 54, Serra left Mexico to supervise the development of what would later be California's 21 Catholic outposts. With the assistance of Spanish troopers, he enslaved indigenous peoples to assist them construct. "The therapy of the Indians is the cruelest I’ve ever learn in historical past," wrote Father Antonio de la Concepción Horra, witness of Serra's actions. "For the smallest issues, they obtain heavy floggings, are chained, put aside and handled with a lot cruelty that they’re stored entire days with out ingesting a glass of water."

Textbooks give a rosy image of the time by describing indigenous peoples as "grateful Indians" receiving the Christian message. In 2015, Serra was canonized by Pope Francis regardless of protests by students and indigenous activists.

However whilst Max Rafferty tried to instill patriotic delight in Californian college students, others got down to train a extra particular story.

Rupert Costo, born in 1906, was an Indian educator, author and activist from Cahuilla, who grew up on the Cahuilla Reserve close to the Coachella Valley and Anza within the Imperial Valley. In 1851, his uncle was one of many signatories of treaties that promised the Indians of California a territory in alternate for donated land to settlers. (Treaties have by no means been ratified.) Costo himself performed soccer at Whittier College.

Two years after Rafferty took over the general public schooling system, Costo and his spouse, Jeannette, shaped the American Indian Historic Society, or "the Society." Additionally they launched the Indian Historian Press, which revealed the Jack Norton genocide in northwestern California, in addition to the indigenous Wassaja newspaper. The occupation of Alcatraz in 1969 is commonly portrayed as the primary time an intertribal effort has triggered social change, however Rose Soza Warfare Soldier, professor of ethnic research at Northern Arizona College and member of the Soboba group of Luiseño Indians in Southern California, says The Society rightly deserves credit score: it has coordinated Indian educators and activists from throughout California to compel public officers, akin to Rafferty, to hearken to natives. The Society mirrored "an excellent range of Indians residing in California," wrote Soza Warfare Soldier. "Members of the Blackfoot, Maidu, Navajo, Ohlone, Paiute, Pueblo, Inupiat, Yakima and Yurok tribes additionally contributed to the group's early years of formation. "

"There’s not a single Indian little one who got here house with disgrace and tears after a kind of periods by which he was instructed that his individuals had been soiled, like an animal. , one thing lower than a human being. "

"There’s not a single Indian in the entire nation who doesn’t worry nervousness and frustration due to these textbooks," Costo stated throughout his testimony in San Francisco in 1968 in entrance of the Underworld. – Particular committee on Indian schooling. Costo made the remarks after attending the California Curriculum Fee. "There’s not a single Indian little one who got here house with disgrace and tears after a kind of periods by which he was instructed that his individuals had been soiled, like an animal. , one thing lower than a human being. "

Regardless of Rafferty's deeply conservative views, the 1960s put it underneath stress, particularly with regard to historical past textbooks. As Soza Warfare Soldier wrote, "he appeared undecided as to the method of integrating historical past textbooks, oscillating between the need for a narrative primarily based on details and the need to" 39, a legendary story selling absolute patriotism ". In his Los Angeles Instances weekly column, Rafferty portrayed illustrations of African Individuals and American Mexicans are a supply of concern due to the portrayal of "barefoot, bandanna carrying planting arms or Olympic athletes" carrying "sandals and serages", concluding that such "extreme racial simplifications do lots of hurt".

For his or her half, Costos have lengthy lamented the shortage of correct illustration in California textbooks. In 1965, the couple contacted Rafferty and requested him to develop into an advisor to the California Curriculum Fee, considered one of three organizations that oversee schooling within the state. Rafferty agreed.

Turning into a consultative member of the Curriculum Fee was a giant deal: it meant that the Costos may have an affect on the textbook business, which was price tens of millions of . Contracts with publishers meant the obligatory sale of books to varsities all through the state, and the American Indian Historic Society used this energy to push textbook writers to right misinformation and stereotypes by rejecting books and books. the contracts.

Helen Bauer's 1954 textual content, California Gold Days, was categorically rejected due to her picture of gold miners as heroes and Indians as ruthless savages squatting behind bushes ready to assault unscrupulous pioneers . "The romantic aura that now adheres to the gold miner must be carefully scrutinized by students and lecturers," writes Costos. "Above all, this love story that attaches to gold miners have to be jagged by the reality."

The Society has succeeded in eradicating a picture of two Narragansett Indians scalping a fainted white girl in an American colonial historical past textbook. Within the guide Land of the Free, the phrase "For even longer, Indians had been handled like kids and weren’t allowed to vote" was changed by "For an extended time, Indians had been unfairly handled as "Incompetent They weren’t allowed to vote. "Small modifications, actually, however an necessary cause why the Costos fought, phrase by phrase, from yr to yr.

They even designed a job play for Grade four college students titled "It's Occurred in California, You're There". Within the recreation, the scholars claimed to be California Indians captured, compelled to reside with missionaries and having a selection of 4: as a result of the guards didn’t at all times watch; manage a revolt; Settle for what has occurred to you and do your finest. or poison the missionary. The scholars had been reminded that they had been unarmed and that the Spaniards had firearms, after which inspired to debate their selections amongst themselves. Nevertheless, the sport has by no means been carried out in school rooms.

A fourth-grade historical past guide titled The Story of California ends the Firm's relationship with Rafferty and the California Curriculum Fee. Costo described the portrait of the Indians as "partial" within the guide and stated the photographs had been "degrading". Nonetheless, 300,000 copies had been ordered, which prompted the Costos to resign.

However they continued to struggle. After ending their dedication to the California Curriculum Fee, they based the Institute for Lecturers, another faculty for educators. The concept was to work exterior the system and prepare lecturers, reasonably than lobbying the California Curriculum Fee. "Whenever you train our younger folks that Columbus found America in 1492, you’re educating the story of a European improvement that occurred on this nation," Costo stated. "You don’t train the historical past of America."

In 1968, Max Rafferty misplaced a bid for a seat within the Senate. Two years later, he misplaced his place as superintendent of public schooling to Wilson Riles, the primary African-American to be elected to a state-wide place in California. Rafferty was killed in a automotive accident in Alabama in 1982. At present, the College of California at Riverside is endowed with a professorship named Costo.

Monique Limón, who’s now representing District 37 on the California State Meeting, remembers her passing to the Ventura County College Board.

She noticed a language dictionary created by the Chumash Band of Santa Ynez that was given to native libraries. She realized that colleges weren’t doing sufficient to advertise the story that was of their yard. "One of many necessary options of California is the wealthy historical past of Native Individuals," Limón stated.

When she arrived on the Legislative Meeting, she started to have increasingly more discussions about Native American research along with her colleagues and members of the California Division of Training. She wished to make modifications and he or she wished to do it in collaboration with the tribes.

"It's additionally a special problem from one area to a different," she stated. "So having an method or fashions the place you see native communities working with their native faculty is actually useful to complement this program."

What do you do if you end up a passionate meeting member of studying and schooling? You sponsor an bill. That is how the California Meeting Invoice 738 was created.

The invoice requires the State Academic High quality Fee to "develop and the board of administrators to undertake, amend or revise a normal program of Native American research". Within the hope of guaranteeing high quality programs in Native American research, lawmakers additionally voted for this system to be developed "with the participation of federally-recognized Native American tribes established in California, California Native American tribes, program lecturers of 39; Native American research in universities and faculties providing Native American diploma packages and a gaggle of representatives of native instructional organizations, the vast majority of which embody lecturers from kindergarten to grade 12, having experiences or related instructional background within the research and educating of Amerindian research. "

If you don’t perceive what is supposed by the legislature, it signifies that the AB 738 needs to be sure that as we speak's college students don’t be taught what the Rafferty college students discovered about California Indians.

The invoice was handed and Governor Jerry Brown enacted it in 2017. One downside, nevertheless, is that the work to make it a actuality within the classroom won’t start till three years later.

Mr. Limón stated that the Ministry of Training ought to first develop this system after which current it to the greater than 1,000 state faculty districts to find out the way to implement it within the corridor of sophistication. It's a sluggish course of that may take years.

A mannequin of the San Diego mission of Acalá, realized by a fourth-year social science class that research the mission program. (David Lofink cc through Flickr)

Scott Roark, communications supervisor of the California Division of Training, stated that the state board of schooling wouldn’t act underneath any form of tips till March 2022, though "focus teams are being put in place to assessment the framework". these focus teams will embody Native American educators or tribal members.

"The longer term improvement of the Mannequin Program will embody (1) the participation of Native American lecturers of upper schooling establishments and (2) representatives of native schooling businesses (LEAs), the vast majority of whom are lecturers from kindergarten to twelfth grade, within the research or educating Native American research, "Roark wrote in an electronic mail.

However although everybody was completely agreed on the modifications to be made, the state didn’t present funding to attain it.

Two of the directors charged with the implementation of this new framework acknowledge that historical past has to this point been of little significance. Tom Adams, Deputy Superintendent of Training and Studying, stated he and different members of the Division of Training had good intentions.

"What we additionally need individuals to know, is that the Native American inhabitants of California was current earlier than the mission and that it has its personal historical past and that it shouldn’t be centered solely on the mission, "stated Adams.

Stephanie Gregson, director of the Division of Curriculum Frameworks and Academic Sources on the Ministry of Training, stated the division had obtained info throughout listening periods with state tribes. . She rapidly notices that they’re attempting to introduce extra essential considering by asking questions akin to "Why had been the Spaniards right here?" And "Who was there earlier than?" And "Why had been the missions constructed?" .

"What we additionally need individuals to know, is that the Native American inhabitants of California was current earlier than the mission and that it has its personal historical past and that it shouldn’t be centered solely on the mission."

Nevertheless, managers who work with lecturers on the way to train a brand new curriculum say it's troublesome as a result of there isn’t a supervision. The state can enact laws establishing a brand new framework that requires faculty districts to show a extra correct story and encourages college students to ask extra essential questions, however legislators have no idea if lecturers truly implement it.

Mae Chaplin, Assistant Professor within the State of Sacramento Graduate Division, says that lecturers are sometimes afraid of historical past as a result of they really feel they don’t have the data to show it nicely.

"They merely have no idea something concerning the historical past of California Indians except they take a course on the college," says Chaplin.

Based on a current report by the First Nations Improvement Institute, "It’s not stunning that non-natives are primarily creating tales about Native Individuals. And the narrative that they undertake is actually made up of deficit and disparity. The report goes on to state that "the biased and revisionist historical past" taught on the faculty results in the invisibility of aboriginals. Between 2011 and 2012, practically 87% of the states' historical past didn’t cowl the historical past of Native Individuals after 1900. And 27 states didn’t particularly point out aboriginals of their curriculum.

Identical to the scholars of the day Max Rafferty, kids uncovered to inaccurate packages will in the future be a candidate for public workplace – be it for the Board of Training or the President of the USA.

Gregg Castro takes a break to point out among the educating supplies accepted by the California Indian Historical past Curriculum Coalition. (Picture by Scott Braley)

Gregg Castro and Rose Borunda, a professor at California State College in Sacramento, in addition to different educators and activists shaped the California Indian Historical past Curriculum Coalition in 2014. Like Rupert and Jeanette Henry Costo, founders From the American Indian Historic Society, Castro and his friends are uninterested in seeing California's historical past books ignoring indigenous peoples and ignoring the persevering with relationship – and the violent historical past – of the Golden State with the primary inhabitants of the area. And like his ancestors, Castro takes a community-based method to creating area and culture-specific curricula.

Borunda says she and different members of the coalition are a part of a nationwide motion aimed toward placing extra emphasis on a extra correct historical past of Native Individuals for elementary and highschool college students . She cites the state of Washington as a mannequin for educating the educating of Aboriginal historical past. This system titled "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" has been endorsed by the 29 tribal nations of the state. It raises thought-provoking questions, akin to "What’s the authorized standing of the tribes that negotiated or didn’t negotiate a settlement to acquire compensation for the lack of their sovereign homeland?" ?» Et «Quelles ont été les forces politiques, économiques et culturelles en découlant aux traités qui ont conduit au déplacement de tribus de patries établies de longue date vers des réserves? "

«L’accent est mis sur la connexion des étudiants à la géographie de cet endroit, leur permettant ainsi de se sentir plus liés à la terre et à l’eau», déclare Sara Marie Ortiz, citoyenne d’Acoma Pueblo, au Nouveau-Mexique, qui a travaillé en étroite collaboration avec la tribu Muckleshoot et avec des étudiants de la Highline. Public College District, juste au sud de Seattle. Muckleshoot est un partenaire privilégié dans la création de «Since Time Immemorial» avec le système scolaire.

«L'accent est mis sur la connexion des étudiants à la géographie de cet endroit, leur permettant de se sentir plus connectés à la terre et à l'eau.»

«Since Time Immemorial» fait exactement ce pour quoi l’AB 738 de Californie a été conçu.

«L'établissement de relations, c'est tout», a expliqué Ortiz. «Cela doit vivre dans ton cœur et dans ton esprit en tant qu'enseignant.» Elle dit que les éducateurs de son district demandent toujours aux orateurs de visiter la salle de classe et que les directeurs d'école ont été très favorables.

«Mon level de vue est que (les éducateurs) veulent mieux raconter l'histoire de la mission et la période de colonisation, mais aussi pousser cette histoire plus loin dans le 20ème et le 21ème siècle», déclare Khal Schneider, citoyen de la tribu de Graton Rancheria. , professeur et membre de la coalition. «Je pense que les dernières années ont suscité un grand intérêt et que beaucoup d'consideration a été portée à ce qu'il advient de la Californie lorsqu'elle deviendra un État américain.» Auparavant, le seul rôle des Indiens de Californie dans l'éducation à l'histoire était celui de serviteurs consciencieux de la mission. système – et c'est là que leur histoire s'est terminée.

Castro et d'autres se disent heureux que le département de l'éducation de Californie veuille enseigner une histoire indigène précise, mais il n'est pas sûr que les enseignants, les districts et les responsables soient prêts à donner aux enfants dans les écoles publiques le récit complet de ce qui s'est passé dans les missions. ou pour discuter de leurs impacts émotionnels et politiques persistants sur les Indiens de Californie. À son avis, les enfants peuvent gérer des vérités difficiles. ce sont les dad and mom qui ont un problème. Il a entendu des dad and mom dire qu’ils connaissaient la véritable histoire des missions, mais souhaitaient toujours que leur enfant apprenne à l’ancienne – en lisant des manuels inexacts et en réalisant des projets scolaires, comme construire des modèles de missions à partir de bâtons de bois. C’est de l’ignorance volontaire, dit-il. "C’est ce qui rend la tâche plus difficile que de lutter contre le racisme absolu."

L’histoire de l’État devrait faire partie de l’éducation des enfants, mais Castro affirme que cela ne devrait pas en être la fin. Une part du programme, créée par le Winnemem Wintu, enseigne l’significance des remontées de saumon et la signification du lieu. Un autre article du Kumeyaay look at les projets d'intendance culturelle et environnementale sur lesquels travaille la tribu, tandis que les Ohlone et Yokut ont mis au level une carte des tribus californiennes pré-contact pour les étudiants.

De la ruée vers l'or au génocide parrainé par l'État, des traités non ratifiés à l'affect économique et politique des nations tribales aujourd'hui, la coalition est déterminée à éduquer la prochaine génération de Californiens. Cet été, les éducateurs et les activistes se réuniront pour discuter des plans de cours et affiner les programmes. Castro dit avoir invité le California Division of Training. À la date de publication, il n’a pas reçu de réponse.

Le père de Castro est décédé il y a plusieurs années, mais il se souvient encore de l'air froid et de l'odeur de la fumée au coucher du soleil sur le Santa Lucias après ces séjours de chasse à l'enfance. Aujourd'hui, il dirige les visites scolaires à Mission San Antonio, et l'herbe sèche craque et craque sous ses pieds lorsqu'il information les étudiants vers le mur où sont enterrés certains de ses ancêtres.

Le catholicisme a toujours fait partie de sa vie, dit-il, malgré l'histoire. Sa mère a enseigné l'école du dimanche et son grand-père a animé des cours de catéchisme, bien qu'il ne soit jamais devenu catholique. Aux yeux de Castro, sa mère a accepté l’église parce qu’elle voyait les similitudes entre les valeurs salinanes et les enseignements chrétiens: générosité, gentillesse, s’occuper des autres. Castro dit que son père avait aussi ces valeurs, mais contrairement à sa mère, son père n'a jamais pardonné à l'église.

Castro et moi partageons une partie de la même histoire. Mes dad and mom vivaient aussi dans ces vallées; ils ont chassé et se sont rendus dans l'océan Pacifique. Une maison en pisé, désormais appelée «l'Adobe des Indiens», website historique protégé, est nichée parmi les collines de la forêt nationale de Las Padres, ses jardins cachés à l'abri des chasseurs et des amoureux de la nature qui souhaitent explorer un lieu où «des Indiens ont vécu». Perfecta Encinales, un de mes ancêtres, vivait dans cette maison. Il y a plus de 10 ans, sous la supervision étroite des gardes forestiers du parc, j'ai visité la maison. Pete Zavalla, l'un des rares employés amérindiens de Los Padres, m'a montré l'herbe à cerf et les roseaux tules poussant près de la maison – des roseaux que ma famille utilisait pour confectionner des paniers auparavant. Il faisait chaud et venteux alors que nous marchions le lengthy d’un petit sentier près d’un verger de pommiers. Quand nous sommes retournés à la maison d'adobe, une brise fraîche a dérivé. Zavalla a fait remarquer que cela aurait été la même brise qu'Encinales a ressenti plus d'un siècle auparavant.

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